An abstract gives a condensed overview of the paper. It is important to ensure that the abstract covers all of the topics discussed in the paper. This will enable the reader to determine if the paper is what they are looking for. The terms used in the abstract should be relevant to the topic to get the attention of the reader. Also, the abstract should be concise and rich in content.
Some journals will require structured abstracts with labels such as Aim, Methods, Results, and Conclusion. The labels are set in bold italics, and they all continue in a single paragraph.
The World Trade Organization and Development: How Special Differential Treatment and Declining Policy Space Lead to Development Deadlock by Sheena Santamaria
To account for its diverse membership, the World Trade Organization (WTO) grants special and differential treatment (SDT) to developing countries, providing them flexibility in adopting the institution’s Uruguay Round agreements. Despite SDT, developing countries remain in a stalemate position in which the economic benefits of WTO membership remain intangible despite their efforts to adhere to the rules-based system. The following question then arises: even though developing countries receive SDT, why do they still seem to be sidelined and thus remain developing? This paper aims to explore the tension between the flexibility of SDT and the shrinkage of policy space due to WTO membership, which creates development deadlock for developing countries. To delve into this tension, this paper examines the variations of the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) implementation among the Philippines, Paraguay, and Nigeria. From this examination, the tension between SDT and policy space manifests itself through three key features: (1) the adjustment burden (2) the lack of alternative development policy options (3) developed country agenda-setting. By identifying the tension between SDT’s flexibility and policy space shrinkage and its manifestations, this paper highlights issues in the relationship between developing and developed countries within the scope of the WTO.
Keywords: WTO, development, special and differential treatment, policy space, TRIPS
An empirical article is any of quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods. The abstract of an empirical article has the following components:
The abstract of a replication article has the following components:
The abstract of a meta-analysis paper has the following components:
Literature review articles are also called narrative literature review articles. The abstract has the following components:
The abstract of a theoretical article has the following components:
The abstract of a methodological article has the following components:
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