The Ultimate Chicago Style Guide

The Ultimate Guide to Citing Anything in Chicago Style

Everything you ever needed to know about citing sources from the Chicago Manual of Style

The Basics of Citing in Chicago Style

The Chicago Manual of Style, currently in its 16th edition, was created to help researchers properly cite their sources. There are two types of referencing styles in Chicago: 1). Notes and Bibliography and 2). Author-Date. This guide displays the Notes and Bibliography style of referencing.

Creating a Bibliography in Chicago Style

The bibliography is a list of all the sources used in the paper. The list includes the important publication details of the sources. The bibliography must also follow the following format:

  • The citation list or bibliography must be single spaced.
  • The last names of the authors must be arranged alphabetically.
  • The second line of the source must be indented.

Examples of Citing Different Sources in Chicago Style

Generally, Chicago citations require:

  • Author
  • Title of book/article
  • Title of newspaper/journal
  • Publication year
  • Publication month and date
  • Publisher
  • City of publication
  • Date of access
  • Page numbers
  • URL or DOI (for some online sources)
  • How to create footnotes and endnotes for Chicago Style

    Chicago’s Notes and Bibliography formatting requires writers to use footnotes and endnotes when using in-text citations. These footnotes and endnotes acknowledge the different sources used in the work.

    When a source is used in a research paper, a roman numeral is placed at the end of the borrowed information as superscript (it is smaller than the normal line of text and raised). That number correlates with a footnote or endnote.

    • Footnotes are found at the bottom of the page
    • Endnotes are added at the end of the chapter or project
    • A footnote or endnote contains the complete citation information.
    • The matching number in the footnote or endnote is normal sized and not raised.
    • It is up to the discretion of the writer to either place the citation at the bottom of the page where the superscript is placed (a footnote) or to place all citations together at the end of the work (endnotes).

    Example:

    One would wonder, “Would young Einstein be characterized as belonging somewhere on the autism spectrum? Would Erdos have been given a diagnosis of A.D.H.D.?” ¹

    Footnote (placed at the bottom of the page)
    1. Silver, Nate. “Beautiful Minds.” The New York Times. July 13, 2013. Accessed August 04, 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/14/books/review/the-boy-who-loved-math-and-on-a-beam-of-light.html?ref=books&_r=0.

    If a source is used more than once in a research project, follow these guidelines:

    • When used again, instead of writing out the complete citation for a second time in the footnote, only include: the author’s last name, the title or a phrase for the title (if it’s more than four words), and the page number(s) that were used. This will reduce the bulk of citation information in the paper.

    Example:
    1. Cohen, Micah, “Rubio is Losing Support Among Republican Voters.” FiveThirtyEight. July 09, 2013. Accessed August 04, 2015. http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/rubio-is-losing-support-among-republican-voters/
    2. Wolf, Leon H. “Marco Rubio’s Campaign Must Adapt or Die.” RedState. August 04, 2015. Accessed August 04, 2015. http://www.redstate.com/2015/08/04/marco-rubios-campaign-must-adapt-die/.
    3. Cohen, “Rubio Losing Support”

    If a source is used consecutively, follow these guidelines:

    • When the same source is used consecutively, instead of typing in the citation information for a third time, use the abbreviation for ibidem: “Ibid.” Ibidem is a latin word that means “in the same place.” Add the page numbers immediately following.
    • If the same source AND same page number is used consecutively, simply write “Ibid.” Ibid. stands for the latin word, ibidem, which means “in the same place”

    Example:

    3. Rosnay, Tatiana De. Sarah’s Key, 24-27.
    4. Ibid., 44.
    5. Ibid.
    6. Ibid., 133-134.
    7. Doerr, Anthony. All the Light We Cannot See, 397-401.
    8. Ibid., 405.
    9. Ibid., 411.

    For further clarification on Notes and Bibliography citations, consult the Chicago Manual of Style’s website .

    Creating Your Citations in Chicago Style

    As mentioned, when you’re following The Chicago Manual of Style, you’ll be required to create a list of all sources used on your paper. Even though full bibliographic information can be found in the footnotes and endnotes, it is still acceptable, and often required by instructors, to create a bibliography. The bibliography is placed at the end of an assignment.

    How to Cite a Print Book in Chicago Style

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    First name Last name.Title of Book. (Publication Place: Publisher, Year).

    In the bibliography:

    Last name, First name. Title of book. Publication place: Publisher, Year.

    Example of Chicago Style for Books with One Author

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    1. Sam Staggs. Born to Be Hurt: The Untold Story of Imitation of Life. (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2009).

    In the bibliography:

    Staggs, Sam. Born to Be Hurt: The Untold Story of Imitation of Life. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2009.

    Don’t forget, Citation Machine allows you to generate Chicago citations for books quickly and accurately.
    For further clarification on how to cite books in Chicago style, Purdue OWL’s guide is a helpful resource.

    Example of Chicago Citation for Books with Multiple Authors

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    2. Ella Shohat and Robert Stam. Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media. (New York: Routledge, 1994), 23-34.

    In the bibliography:

    Shohat, Ella and Robert Stam. Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media. New York: Routledge, 1994.

    How to Cite Chapters or Articles from a Book in Chicago Style

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    First name, Last name of Chapter Author.“Chapter or Article Title,” in Book Title, (Publication Place: Publisher, Year), Page-Page.

    In the bibliography:

    Last name, First name. “Chapter Title.” In Book Title, Pages or Chapter Number. Publication Place: Publisher, Year.

    Example of Chicago Citation for Chapters in a Book

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    3. Laura Aymerich-Franch and Maddalena Fedele, “Student’s Privacy Concerns on the Use of Social Media in Higher Education,” in Cutting-Edge Technologies and Social Media Use in Higher Education, (Pennsylvania: Information Science Reference, 2014), 54-75.

    In the bibliography:

    Aymerich-Franch, Laura and Maddalena Fedele. “Student’s Privacy Concerns on the Use of Social Media in Higher Education.” In Cutting-Edge Technologies and Social Media Use in Higher Education, 54-75. Pennsylvania: Information Science Reference, 2014.

    How to Cite Online E-books in Chicago Style

    When citing e-books, include the URL or the DOI. The URL or DOI should be the last part of the citation.
    In footnotes and endnotes:

    4. First name Last name, Title of e-book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), doi: or url:.

    In the bibliography:

    Last name, First name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. doi: or url:.

    Example of Chicago Citation for E-Books

    In footnotes and endnotes:

    5. Michael J. Baker, The Marketing Book. (Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1987), url: http://htbiblio.yolasite.com/resources/Marketing%20Book.pdf.

    In the bibliography:

    Baker, Michael J. The Marketing Book. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1987. url: http://htbiblio.yolasite.com/resources/Marketing%20Book.pdf.

    How to Cite E-books in Chicago Style E-books from a Kindle or E-book Reader

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    6. First name Last name, Title of the Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), Type of E-reader, chapter or page range.

    In the bibliography:

    Last name, First name. Title of book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Type of E-reader.

    Example of Chicago Citation for Kindle or E-book Reader

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    7. Corina Bomann, The Moonlight Garden (Washington: AmazonCrossing, 2016), Kindle Edition.

    In the bibliography:

    Bomann, Corina. The Moonlight Garden. Washington: AmazonCrossing, 2016. Kindle Edition.

    How to Cite Print Journals in Chicago Style

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    8. First name Last name, “Title of Article,” Journal Title Volume Number, No. of issue (Year): Page range.

    In the bibliography:

    Last name, First name. “Title of Article,” Journal Title Volume Number, No. of issue (Year): Page range.

    Example of Chicago Citation for Print Journals

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    9. Damien O’Brien and Brian Fitzgerald, “Digital Copyright Law in a YouTube World,” Internet Law Bulletin 9, no. 6 (2007): 71-74.

    In the bibliography:

    O’Brien, Damien, and Brian Fitzgerald, “Digital Copyright Law in a YouTube World.” Internet Law Bulletin 9, no. 6 (2007): 71-74.

    Don’t forget, Citation Machine allows you to generate Chicago citations for books quickly and accurately.

    How to Cite Database Journals in Chicago Style

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    10. First name Last name, “Article Title,” Journal Title Volume Number, Issue No.(Year): Page range. doi or url.

    In the bibliography:

    Last name, First name. “Article Title.” Journal Title Volume Number, Issue No.(Year): Page range. doi or url.

    Example of Chicago Citation for Database Journals

    11. Trine Schreiber, “Conceptualizing Students’ Written Assignments in the Context of Information Literacy and Schatzki’s Practice Theory,” Journal of Documentation 70, no. 3(2014): 346-363. url: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-01-2013-0002

    In the bibliography:

    Schreiber, Trine. “Conceptualizing Students’ Written Assignments in the Context of Information Literacy and Schatzki’s Practice Theory.” Journal of Documentation 70, no. 3(2014): 346-363. url: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-01-2013-0002.

    How to Cite Print Magazines in Chicago Style

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    12. First name Last name, “Article Title,” Magazine Title, Month Year, Page range.

    In the bibliography:

    Last name, First name. “Article Title.” Magazine Title, Month Year, Page range.

    Example of Chicago Citation for Print Magazines

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    George J. Church, “Sunny Mood at Midsummer,” Time, July 1983.

    In the bibliography:

    Church, George J. “Sunny Mood at Midsummer” Time, July 1983.

    Don’t forget, Citation Machine allows you to generate Chicago citations for books quickly and accurately.

    How to Cite Online Magazines in Chicago Style

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    4. First name, Last name, “Article Title,” Title of Magazine, Month Year, Page range, url or doi.

    In the bibliography:

    Last name, First name. “Article Title” Magazine Title, Date published. url or doi.

    Example of Chicago Citation for Online Magazines

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    5. Meryl Gordon, “Night of the Long Knives,” Title of Magazine, June 1997, https://books.google.com/books?id=OugCAAAAMBAJ&lpg=PP1&dq=magazine&pg=PA31#v=onepage&q=magazine&f=false.

    Gordon, Meryl. “Night of the Long Knives” New York, June 1997. https://books.google.com/books?id=OugCAAAAMBAJ&lpg=PP1&dq=magazine&pg=PA31#v=onepage&q=magazine&f=false.

    How to Cite a Web Page in Chicago Style

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    5. First name Last name of Author, “Title of Article or Page,” Title of Website, Owner or sponsor of the site, Month Day Year of publication or date accessed, url.

    In the bibliography:

    Last name, First name. “Title of Article or Page.” Title of Website. Month Day, Year of Publication or last modification. url or doi.

    Example of Chicago Citation for a Web Page

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    7. Sujan Patel, “15 Must-have Marketing Tools for 2015,” Entreprenuer, January 12, 2015, http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/241570.

    Patel, Sujan. “15 Must-have Marketing Tools for 2015.” Entrepreneur. January 12, 2015. http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/241570.

    Don’t forget, Citation Machine allows you to generate Chicago citations for websites quickly and accurately.

    How to Cite The Bible or Religious Texts in Chicago Style

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    2. Book, Chapter:Verse, (Edition).

    In the bibliography:

    Title of Bible, Edition. ed. Vol. Number, City: Publisher, Year Published.

    Example of Chicago Citation for Bible

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    6. 2 Kings 11:7 (New Standard Version).

    In the bibliography:

    The Holy Bible, King James Version, Philadelphia: National Publishing Company, 1997.

    How to Cite Blogs in Chicago Style

    *According to the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, blogs are not typically cited in bibliographies. They are cited in the footnotes/endnotes section. A frequently cited blog, however, may be included in the bibliography.
    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    1. First name Last name, “Title of Blog Post,” Title of Blog (blog), Month Day Year of post, url.

    In the bibliography:

    Last Name, First Name, “Title of the Blog.” Name of Blog Site, Date Published, URL.

    Example of Chicago Citation for Blogs

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    1. Shannon Miller, “Valentine Ideas Using Digital Tools, Hands, Creativity, and a Little Love for Padlet,” The Library Voice (blog), January 20, 2016, http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com/2016/01/valentine-ideas-using-digital-tools.html.

    In the bibliography:

    Miller, Shannon, “Valentine Ideas Using Digital Tools, Hands, Creativity, and a Little Love for Padlet.” The Library Voice, January 20, 2016, http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com/2016/01/valentine-ideas-using-digital-tools.html.

    How to Cite Broadcasts in Chicago Style

    *There is no official citation in the 16th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style for TV or radio broadcasts. Citation Machine has created this citation based on recommendations from librarians.
    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    2. “Episode Title.” Name of TV or Radio Broadcast. Network Name. Month Day Year of first air date. Medium.

    In the bibliography:

    Name of TV or Radio Broadcast. “Title of Episode.” Episode Number (if it’s available). Directed by First name Last name. Written by First name Last name. Network name, Month Day Year of first air date.

    Example of Chicago Citation for Broadcasts

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    3. “Eric Pryd and Jeremy Olander.” Essential Mix. BBC Radio. January 1, 2015. Radio.

    In the bibliography:

    Essential Mix. “Eric Prydz and Jeremy Olander.” Hosted by Pete Tong. BBC Radio 1, January 1 2015.

    How to Cite a Case Study in Chicago Style

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    First name Last name.Title of Case Study. (Publication Place: Publisher, Year).

    In the bibliography:

    Last name, First name. Title of Case Study. Publication place: Publisher, Year.

    Example of Chicago Citation for Case Study

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    4. Peter Finn. Disulfiram. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995.

    In the bibliography:

    Finn, Peter. Disulfiram. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995.

    How to Cite Conference Proceedings in Chicago Style

    If the conference paper was included in a published proceeding, cite it like a chapter in a book.
    If the conference paper was published in a journal, cite it the same way as a journal article.

    How to Cite Court or Legal Cases in Chicago Style

    According to the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th Edition, almost all legal works use notes for documentation and few use bibliographies. Any work cited in the text does not need to be listed in the bibliography. For that reason, only the footnotes and endnotes format and examples are included.
    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    5. Plaintiff v. Defendant, Court Case Number (Abbreviated Name of the Court. Year).

    Example of Chicago Citation for Legal Cases

    ]
    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    Michael Clum v. Jackson National Life Insurance Co., 10-000126-CL (Ingham Cty. 2011).

    How to Cite Dictionary and Encyclopedia Entries in Chicago Style

    According to the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th Edition, well-known reference books, including major dictionaries and encyclopedias, are normally cited in notes rather than bibliographies. Lesser known reference books can be cited in the bibliography.
    The abbreviation s.v. means sub verbo, which is latin for “under the word.”
    In the footnotes ane endnotes:

    1. Name of dictionary or encyclopedia, Edition, s.v. “referenced word.”

    If found online:

    2. Name of dictionary or encyclopedia, s.v. “referenced word,” Accessed Month Day Year, url.

    In the bibliography:

    Last name, First name of Author. Title of Dictionary or Encyclopedia. Publication Place: Publisher, Year.

    Example of Chicago Citation for Dictionary Entries

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    1. Encyclopedia Britannica, 15th ed., s.v. “donkey.”

    In the bibliography:

    Gover, Emily. Encyclopedia of Birds. New York: Imagine Easy Solutions, 2015.

    How to Cite Dissertations in Chicago Style

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    First name Last name, “Title of Dissertation” (degree, school, year), url.

    In the bibliography:

    Last name, First name. “Title of Dissertation.” Degree, School, Year. Database(Identification Number).

    Example of Chicago Citation for Dissertations

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    2. Michele Kirschenbaum, “Young Students’ Online Searching Capabilities” (master’s thesis, Drexel University, 2009).

    In the bibliography:

    Kirschenbaum, Michele. “Young Students’ Online Searching Capabilities.” Master’s thesis, Drexel University, 2009.

    How to Cite DVDs, Video, and Film in Chicago Style

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    3. Title, Directed by First Name Last name (Publication Place: Publisher, Year), Medium.

    In the bibliography:

    Title. Directed by First name Last name. Publication Place: Publisher, Year. Medium.

    Example of Chicago Citation for Film, DVDs, or Videos

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    3. Home Alone, Directed by Chris Columbus (Los Angeles, CA: 20th Century Fox, 1990), DVD.

    In the bibliography:

    Home Alone. Directed by Chris Columbus. Los Angeles, CA: 20th Century Fox, 1990. DVD.

    Don’t forget, Citation Machine allows you to generate Chicago citations for films quickly and accurately.

    How to Cite Facebook Pages in Chicago Style

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    Title of Facebook page, accessed Month Day Year, url.

    In the bibliography:

    Title of Facebook Page. Accessed Month Day Year. url.

    Example of Chicago Citation for Facebook Post

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    4. Awakenings, Accessed February 15, 2016, https://www.facebook.com/awakenings/?fref=ts.

    In the bibliography:

    Awakenings. Accessed February 15, 2016. https://www.facebook.com/awakenings/?fref=ts.

    How to Cite Government Publications in Chicago Style

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    Firm/Department, Title of Publication, (Publication Place: Publisher, Year), page range.

    In the bibliography:

    Firm/Department. Title of Publication. Publication Place: Publisher, Year. page range.

    Example of Chicago Citation for Government Publication

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    6. Department of Justice, Audit of the Federal Bureau of Prisons Annual Financial Statements Fiscal Year 2014, (Washington, DC, 2014), 26-30.

    In the bibliography:

    Department of Justice. Audit of the Federal Bureau of Prisons Annual Financial Statements Fiscal Year 2014. Washington, DC, 2014. 26-30.

    How to Cite Interviews in Chicago Style

    Published Interviews are treated like an article in a magazine or a chapter in a book. Use one of those formats to cite your interview.

    How to Cite an E-mail in Chicago Style

    According to the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, personal communications, such as letters, e-mails, text messages, and phone calls are usually referenced in the footnotes and endnotes. They are rarely listed in the bibliography. In addition, an e-mail address belonging to an individual should be omitted, unless given permission by its owner.
    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    5. Individual’s First name Last name, type of communication, Month Day Year of correspondence.

    Example of Chicago Citation for E-mail

    5. Michele Kirschenbaum, e-mail message to Emily Gover, January 18, 2016.

    How to Cite Musical Recordings in Chicago Style

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    First name Last name of performer, “Title of Song,” Year of recording date, Title of Album, Publisher, medium.

    In the bibliography:

    Last name, First name of performer. Title of Album, Publisher, Recording Number, Year of recording, medium.

    Example of Chicago Citation for Recordings

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    4. Tiesto, “Secrets” (Feat. Vassy), 2015, Club Life: Volume 4, New York City, Republic Records, compact disc.

    In the bibliography:

    Tiesto. Club Life: Volume 4: New York City, Republic Records, Track 2, 2015, compact disc.

    How to Cite Online Images or Videos in Chicago Style

    Title of images are italicized.
    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    First name Last name of creator, “Title of work”, medium, Name of website, url.

    In the bibliography:
    Last name, First name. “Title of work.” Creation Month Day Year. Website. url.

    Example of Chicago Citation for Online Image or Videos

    Title of images are italicized. Videos are placed in quotations.
    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    6. Pan Pot, “Awakenings Gashouder Carl Cox And Friends,” online video, YouTube, https://youtu.be/Jk3gGeFuX6A.

    In the bibliography:

    Pan Pot. “Awakenings Gashouder Carl Cox And Friends.” March 30 2013. online video. YouTube. https://youtu.be/Jk3gGeFuX6A.

    How to Cite Photographs in Chicago Style

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    First name Last name, Title of Photograph, Year, Book or Museum, Location.

    In the bibliography:

    Last Name, First Name. Photograph Title. Month Day Year Created. Collection, Book/Museum, Location.

    Example of Chicago Citation for Photographs

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    Jerome Liebling, May Day, New York, 1948, The Jewish Museum, New York City, NY.

    Liebling, Chris. May Day, New York. 1948. The Jewish Museum, New York City, NY.

    How to Cite Plays in Chicago Style

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    First name Last name, Title of Play, scene or stanza, lines.

    In the bibliography:

    Last name, First name. Title of Play. City: Publisher, Year.

    Example of Chicago Citation for Play

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    Lin Manuel-Miranda, Hamilton, act 2.

    In the bibliography:

    Manuel-Miranda, Lin. Hamilton. New York: 2015.

    How to Cite Podcasts in Chicago Style

    When citing podcasts in Chicago Style, treat it as an article in a periodical or a chapter in a book. If found online, include the url.

    How to Cite Poems in Chicago Style

    When citing poes in Chicago Style, cite it as you would a chapter in a book.

    How to Cite Presentations and Lectures in Chicago Style

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    First name Last name of presenter, “Title of Lecture,” (type of presentation, name of organization, location, Month Day Year of lecture).

    In the bibliography:

    Last name, First name. “Title of Lecture.” Information about lecture including reason for lecture and meeting place, location, Month Day Year.

    Example of Chicago Citation for Lecture

    Danny Chan, “Optimizing SEO,” (lecture, General Assembly, New York, NY, June 8, 2015).

    In the bibliography:

    Chan, Danny. “Optimizing SEO.” Lecture presented at General Assembly, New York, NY, June 8, 2015.

    How to Cite Sheet Music in Chicago Style

    According to the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, cite sheet music the same way as books.